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The finalists performed live in front of an audience of 10,000 at the Wiener Stadthalle in the Austrian capital. After the contest, the ballots cast by Macedonia and Montenegro were disqualified after it was discovered that they had excluded their professional juries from the voting process. The show attracted a television audience estimated at 195 million across 45 countries, including China for the first time.

The 27 finalists included Australia, which was taking part for the first time. The runner-up was Russia’s Polina Gagarina, who sang “A Million Voices.”Italy finished in third place.

The show’s hosts, Arabella Kiesbauer, Alice Tumler and Mirjam Weichselbraun, alongside last year’s winner Conchita, emphasized the contest’s “Building Bridges” theme, and attempted to dissuade the audience from booing the Russian contestant. According to the rules of the contest, national ballots should be cast by each country following a combination of a public vote and a vote by national juries consisting of music professionals. More than 1,600 journalists from 85 countries covered the event in Vienna.

LONDON — Sweden’s Mans Zelmerlow won the 60th edition of the Eurovision Song Contest on Saturday in Vienna, Austria. This followed semi-finals, in which 40 countries took part, on May 19 and 21.

Sweden’s Mans Zelmerlow Wins Eurovision Song Contest in Front of 195 Million Viewers | Variety. The booing had also been a feature of last year’s event, and is a response to Russia’s military conflict with Ukraine, and its anti-gay legislation.

The show was a co-production between the European Broadcasting Union and Austrian broadcaster ORF. PricewaterhouseCoopers oversaw the voting process, which was managed by Germany-based company Digame Mobile. The order in which countries declared their ballots was determined by an algorithm, which was created by a Swedish professor to mask the eventual winner for as long as possible.

Mans performed the power pop anthem “Heroes,” which was written by Anton Malmberg Hard af Segerstad, Joy Deb and Linnea Deb

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Brokers said a rush of cargo fixing earlier last week,

helped by a demand boost, lost momentum.

“This looks likely to have been a fleeting spike, however,

and a sedate end to the week lowered rates back down to …

$13,500/day,” broker SSY said on Monday.

Typical Long Range 2, 75,000 tonne shipments on the Middle

East Gulf (MEG) to Japan route stood at W88.95 from W88.71 on

Friday and W88.38 on Monday.

Earnings hit their lowest in a year in November and have

been volatile since then. Firmer activity in April last year

pushed rates to their highest since 2008 on a jump in U.S.

gasoline demand, helping to reduce the number of tankers

available for hire.

* LR rates to stay subdued due to China holidays

Rates for medium-range (MR) tankers for 37,000 tonne cargoes

from Rotterdam to New York moved to W155.00, or $11,642 a day

when translated into average earnings, from W164.79 or $13,688 a

day on Friday and W154.38 or $11,406 a day last Monday.

Long Range (LR) 1 tankers, carrying 55,000 tonne loads from

the Middle East Gulf (MEG) to Japan, were at W104.50, from

W104.04 on Friday and W98.15 last Monday.


LONDON Jan 23 (Reuters) – Refined petroleum tanker

rates on top export routes were mostly steady on Monday although

slower activity took its toll on earnings in the transatlantic


* Transatlantic market set to stay volatile

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For years, however, testing the warhead’s components to ensure the weapon produces the intended blast instead of a fizzle has been complicated by a lack of replacement plutonium triggers.

The new ones were made by using a mold to cast the grapefruit-size plutonium sphere. That, in turn, creates the high temperatures and pressure to ignite a “secondary” nuclear component. Such approval means they are ready to use.

The Project on Government Oversight says it was told by some Los Alamos scientists that the trigger certified last July and known as the W88 pit needed 72 waivers from the specifications used for the original triggers, including 53 engineering-related changes.

Resting atop the Trident II missile, the W88 warhead is among the mainstays of the country’s submarine-based nuclear arsenal. The scientist spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitive nature of the issue.

Last summer, the first replacement plutonium trigger in 18 years received “diamond stamp” approval signaling it was ready for use in a warhead. The result is a a massive hydrogen blast.

Any variation or flaw in the pit could cause a warhead not to detonate properly or to detonate with less explosive power than expected.

Because the United States no longer conducts underground nuclear tests, the Los Alamos scientists had to rely on other sources to replicate the original triggers and guarantee that the replacements would be as reliable as the old. So far, nine have earned the “diamond stamp” from the National Nuclear Security Administration, which oversees the lab’s programs. To scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, that was a milestone to celebrate. It meant the warheads, after testing that makes the original trigger unsuitable for reuse, could be reassembled with a new trigger and put back into service.

In a warhead’s detonation, a conventional explosive packaged around the pit compresses the plutonium inward, creating enough pressure for an atomic chain reaction.

At least one other replacement pit required 71 specification waivers, a Los Alamos scientist indirectly involved in the production process told The Associated Press. These means included small-scale plutonium tests, technical data from past underground tests, and computer codes and models.

Precise manufacture of the trigger is essential.

Since last summer’s announcement, the Los Alamos lab has made 10 additional W88 triggers. She posed that question in a letter last Friday to Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman.. This process is viewed by metallurgists as producing a stronger product.

A watchdog group now is raising questions about whether the replacement triggers, also known as pits, can be guaranteed to be as reliable as those already in some 400 W88 warheads. The last of the original triggers were manufactured in the late 1980s.

The government acknowledges differences between the old triggers and their replacements.

“With this large number of waivers, how is it possible to objectively tell whether the pit will even work?” said Danielle Brian, executive director of the group that monitors nuclear weapons-related activities. The original triggers were made with the benefit of underground nuclear testing, which the U.S. halted in 1992, and through a different process than the replacements. The original triggers, all made at the now-closed Rocky Flats facility in Colorado, were hammered into precise form

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Gameplay Interactive will be at Stand 319, G2E Asia, the Venetian Macao, Macao from May 19-21.


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Award-winning provider of leading online betting and gaming solutions, SBTech has signed a deal with leading egaming software provider Gameplay Interactive (GPI) to provide a powerful sportsbook localized for the Asian market.

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May. 17th International Cloud Expo, to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, APM, APIs, Microservices, Security, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps and WebRTC to one location.

With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise I…

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May. We are looking forward to working closely with SBTech and exploring new opportunities together.”

May. Almost three quarters of Asia’s interactive/online gaming revenues come from sports betting and we’re confident our localised sportsbook will prove popular.”

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SBTech’s powerful sports betting interface features all the popular Asian bet types, including Asian handicap and Over/Under, as well as over 200 other different bet types across more than 30 sports, and coverage of more than 18,000 live events per month.

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Gameplay Interactive powers some of the region’s leading brands, including, all of whom will benefit from the seamless integration of SBTech’s powerful sportsbook that has been tailored specifically for the unique Asian sports betting market.

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May. This partnership shall offer our operators an impressive Asian market facing sportsbook and new distribution channels for betting in addition to GPI’s impressive collection of high-definition Live Casino, 3D Slot Games for both Web and Mobile. 21, 2015 04:00 AM EDT  Reads: 4,122

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In addition to a powerful Asian facing sportsbook, SBTech will also be presenting its latest innovation, Chameleon360, a potent egaming backend system which allows operators comprehensive control of an entire suite of integrated premium casino gaming content from the industry’s leading providers.

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May. We understand the local player demographic and requirements, which enabled us to conclude this successful partnership with SBTech to distribute the product into the Asian market. Kristof Kloeckner Keynote: Cloud Needs DevOps


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The deal comes ahead of both companies’ preparations to showcase their portfolios of innovative products specifically for the Asian market at the Global Gaming Exhibition (G2E) Asia from May 19-21.

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The founders of BETNGO have over 30 years of experience in the

gaming sector and BETNGO like FUN88 runs a popular affiliate system.

. BETNGO offers casino, poker and

sportsbetting opportunities to its customers.

Nathan Walker Director of Welton Holdings Limited, operator of FUN88

said “We are excited to be working with BETNGO whom we have known

for some time and look forward to a continued successful relationship

with BETNGO in the future.”

Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

LONDON — FUN88 is delighted to announce that the owners of FUN88

have now taken a majority stake in ILA Curacao NV the operator of the

very successful website. BETNGO’s geographical

reach complements that of FUN88 and the companies will work together in

developing exciting new products for their players.

COPYRIGHT 2011 Business Wire

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

BETNGO is particularly strong in poker and is part of the ipoker


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For recent news on online poker legislation please check out the suggested links below, or click on this link to a comprehensive list of online poker articles.

Markell’s signing of the bill comes just one day after the bill was passed by the Delaware State Senate. Currently wagering on NFL football can only be done at one of three Delaware casinos. The Delaware State House passed their version of the bill two weeks ago by a vote of 29 in favor to 8 opposed.

House Bill #333 formally known as “The Delaware Gaming Competitiveness Act of 2012″ authorizes internet gaming under the control and operation of the Delaware Lottery.

The new law will expand keno beyond Delaware’s three casinos to at least 100 other sites.

After much debate across the nation in the past year, Delaware has become the first state to make online gambling legal.

In recent years Delaware’s neighbor to the north, Pennsylvania, has been expanding and growing their gaming industry, as Delaware’s gambling revenues decreased. The vote in the Senate was 14 in favor to 6 opposed. The expansion of Delaware’s gambling industry was seen by proponents of the bill as the next logical step to keep from losing more revenues.

Delaware expands gambling

There was also speculation earlier in the year that New Jersey would be one of the first states to offer online gambling, but those efforts have been put on hold.

Delaware Governor Jack Markell signed into law on Thursday a bill authorizing online betting in Delaware as well as more venues for sports wagering and other gambling.

In 2009, Delaware became the first state other than Nevada to offer wagering on NFL football games. @Gu42 on Twitter or Guru42 on Facebook.. The new bill will expand betting on NFL football to at least 20 non-casino sites.

Follow Tom Peracchio for updates ..

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Rút ti?n trong 1 ngày làm vi?c hành chính.

-T?i Vi?t Nam thì ph??ng th?c g?i ti?n ch? y?u và thu?n l?i nh?t là hình th?c Quick Tranfer ( chuy?n ti?n qua ngân hàng ??a ph??ng ) v?i m?t h? th?ng tài kho?n ngân hàng trung gian t?i các ngân hàng l?n nh?: Vietcombank, Á Châu bank, …) cho nên vi?c m? m?t tài kho?n cá c??c tr?c tuy?n ?? gi?i trí hàng ngày r?t d? dàng, thu?n ti?n và không c?n ph?i t?n th?t nhi?u ti?n

( t?i thi?u 200.000 vn?)

N?p ti?n t?i ?a 200.000.000 vn?

- Th? t?c ??ng ký ??n gi?n.

Click vào link bên d??i ?? tham gia FUN88…

N?p ti?n ch? 30 phút là có ti?n trong tài kho?n.

- FUN88 có ??i ng? h? tr? khách hàng chu ?áo b?ng ti?ng Vi?t.

T?i Euro 2012 b?n có th? c??c v?i nhi?u t? l? c??c h?p d?n, tài x?u, t? s? , th? ??, th? vàng, ph?t góc, ném biên, c??c xâu, c??c t? s?…

- N?i dung c?c kì phong phú: không ch? có cá ?? trong bóng ?á, b?n còn ???c d?p th?a s?c v?i hàng tr?m s? ki?n di?n ra hàng ngày c?a các môn th? thao yêu thích khác nh?: Bóng chuy?n (Volleyball), Tennis, bóng r? (Basketball), Bóng b?u d?c (Rugby), Golf, ?ua ng?a (Horse racing), ?ua xe công th?c 1 (Formula 1), ?ua mô tô (Moto GP), Bóng chày (Baseball), Khúc côn c?u trên b?ng (Ice hockey),v.v..

- C??c h?n h?p chéo ( c??c xâu ) trong 7 ngày.

C??c ??t t?i thi?u là 20.000 vn?

Gi?i ??u ???c mong ch? s?p di?n ra – EURO 2012

Euro 2012 n?i quy nh?ng ngôi sao sang giá nh?t châu Âu

B?n hãy t?o cho mình 1 tài kho?n FUN88 ?? tham gia cá ?? t?i gi?i ??u này.

Và còn nhi?u ?u ?i?m khác ….

-Tính ti?n c??c ngay sau 45 phút hi?p 1 ( n?u b?n c??c theo t? l? hi?p 1 ). [/CENTER]






H??ng d?n chi ti?t cách ??ng ký, n?p ti?n, rút ti?n FUN88 t?i website


nick yahoo

[CENTER] [IMG]… t? l? ?n r?t cao

L?i ích khi ch?i t?i FUN88:

-N?p ti?n và rút ti?n c?c nhanh.

- Lo?i hình ??t c??c phong phú, ??t c??c t?i phút cu?i cùng c?a tr?n ??u ( ??t c??c t? phút ??u tiên ??n phút bù gi? su?t tr?n ??u ), c??c tài x?u m?i 15 phút trong tr?n ( t? 1–15 phút ; 15–30 phút ; 30–45 phút ; 45–60 …), c??c xâu, c??c t? s?, ph?t góc, ném biên, c??c th? ??, th? vàng…

??c bi?t FUN88 còn h? tr? nhi?u hình th?c g?i ti?n và rút ti?n, giúp cho khách hàng c?a t?ng qu?c gia có ?i?u ki?n thu?n l?i nh?t cho vi?c m? tài kho?n: Paysweb, Western Union, Moneybookers, Credit Card, Quick tranfer…. Cá ?? bóng ?á t?i EURO 2012 v?i FUN88…

N?p ti?n t?i thi?u ch? 200.000 vn? là b?n ?ã có th? ??t c??c

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This included family members taking on extra jobs or moonlighting in order to make ends meet. Employment in mining actually rose until 1981 only to fall nearly in half during the 1980′s through the 1990′s (Slater 129).

This article focused on one particular facet of the Reaganomics debate; the issue of inequality in income distribution in America as a result of a turn-around in government policies combined with corporate restructuring. Also on the hit list for Reaganomics, was the reduction of social programs.

There is plenty of material to argue whether or not Reaganomics was an economic success or an economic blunder. During the 1980′s, the U.S. firms have gone abroad to set up assembly or service operations. I must add at this point that the “U-turn” in America’s economics actually began during the 1970′s; Reagan only sped up and expanded the process significantly (“U-turn”- the term used by Bluestone and Harrison to describe the reversal of fortune of the labor forces and the shrinking middle class).

Part of the Reagan plan was a reduction in taxes. The program included freezing the minimum wage and shifting against federal protection of workers’ rights and unions. The “engineered recession” of 1980 and 1981-2, along with reductions in social welfare programs contributed to this “great U-turn” in the standard of living of most Americans, employed as well as unemployed, middle managers as well as blue collar workers (Harrison Bluestone viii). A major part of Reagan’s policy was to enhance the military complex in order to stay ahead of the perceived communist threat. Keeping labor costs from rising is not the only reason that U.S. Harrison and Bluestone call the Reagan Administration “the single greatest gift to the business community” (Harrison Bluestone 102). But most of all, during the Reagan year’s people went into debt.

Deregulation under Carter and Reagan opened the industries of steel, automotive, carpenters, and trucking to what Geoghegan called gypsies – small owner operators (Geoghegan 139). The same act that affirmed the right to organize but gave the NLRB the job of certifying whether or not a union was to be considered “officially” recognized. By the late 1980s the before tax GINI Index was (.423) with the after taxes GINI as (.404). The result of this program was a softening of safety and environmental regulations to ease the burden on industry. By the mid-1970′s global competition was eating away at American business profits. The Government’s induced deflation, deregulation, regressive tax reform, privatization, and “union bashing” have contributed to new corporate strategies and the inequality of income distribution in America (Harrison Bluestone 16). Credit card use grew from $55 billion in 1980 to more than $128 billion in 1986 (Harrison Bluestone 149).Families filing chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Code grew from an average of less than 39,000 per year (1975-1980) to almost 95,000 a year (1981-1984) (Harrison Bluestone 152).

To better compete in a global economy, US industries adopted a program of “restructuring”. Additionally, in 1947 and the passing of Taft-Hartley, labor could no longer organize on the scale of unions of the 1930′s. Yet, the cost to the average American laborer during that era and continuing into the next administration was what gave Reaganomics its negative reputation.. Final Word

Reagan was not the only one conducting a reduction program. The two-tier wage system allowed reduced wages for employees during the new worker’s first few weeks or months of the normal probation period. As a result, the traditional one-income household was no longer sufficient to keep up with the family economic needs. Families filing chapter 13 of the Bankruptcy Code grew from an average of less than 39,000 per year (1975-1980) to almost 95,000 a year (1981-1984) (Harrison Bluestone 152).In effect, most Americans during the Reagan Years went into debt. The inequality of income is not limited to only a specific age group (Harrison Bluestone 125).

Social deregulation, as described by Harrison and Bluestone, was a true innovation of the Reagan Administration. Who paid for the improvements in American business during the 1980′s? The lower 60% of American workers paid for these improvements through the reductions in the real purchasing power of their income.

Geoghegan believes that part of the weakening of unions also has to do with a lack of sympathy by the average family. production employment. This act also weakened union power by outlawing mass picketing, secondary strikes on neutral employers, and sit-downs. Reminiscent of the 1920′s and 1930′s, the middle class, formerly the largest class of the post WWII through the Vietnam War era has also been ever decreasing in size. The Reagan Administration simply continued this trend toward economic deregulation as initiated under Carter. The reduced costs resulting from relocating no-skill jobs, low-skill jobs, assembly, and manufacturing operations to low wage areas, validated the practice of outsourcing. With the weakening of organized labor by deregulation, businesses began experimenting with organizational changes to include work, labor, management relations, and flexible arrangements with employees, subcontractors, otherwise known as corporate restructuring.

The counter argument against these income disparity issues is attributed by some as simply a matter of normal business cycles. Since employee turnover is highest during the first few months of employment, businesses could save at least 20 to 25-percent of the wages they would have paid to an employee during that same period.

The total amount borrowed by consumers nearly doubled between 1981 and 1986, from $394 Billion to $739 Billion. Salaries and benefits of corporate CEOs as compared to the average factory workers were 30 times higher in1980 and reached 130-140 times higher in 1991 (Krugman 262). Both sides of the Reaganomic fence provide more than enough evidence in support of the argument that says: lower and middle class America lost significant ground during the 1980′s. According to Krugman, these salaries did not come primarily from greater profits, but from a larger slice of the profits.

Creative wage reduction programs such as the two-tier pay system and conversion of a percentage of full-time employees to contingency labor employees (part-time and temporary employees) or a combination of methods became (and are still) the normal practice. And, of course, both sides of the argument will present evidence in support of their positions. Families expanded their use of “plastic money” even faster. Benefit packages for these contingency employees were either non-existent or at least small enough to still keep labor costs low. These methods provided a way of reducing full-time labor wage costs, which included a reduction in employee benefits cost. Harrison and Bluestone define what is usually considered the middle-class income earners, as those making $20,000 to $50,000 annually. During the 1970′s the average family income was $24,000, while the average steelworker was making $40,000. It became a joke to say, “We are spending money to help the economy.” Consumer borrowing doubled between 1981 and 1986, from $394 Billion to $739 Billion. Many of the nation’s economic critics saw the policies of Reaganomics as short-term answers to a long-term problem by borrowing against the nation’s future.

From 1973 to 1986 average wages have dropped in buying power by nearly 14-percent (Harrison Bluestone 113).In 1986, the average annual income of the poorest 20-percent of all families was $8,033. Employment in the manufacturing area fell seven-percent between 1968 and 1979, continuing to fall twelve-percent more through the 1980′s and 1990′s (Slater 143). “The old Teamster order collapsed and thousands of firms closed (Geoghegan 139).” During the late 1970′s and into the 1980′s, the Teamster membership fell from 2.2 million to 1.6 million. Reaganomics as described by most, if not all economists and historians was supply-side economics; however, this in itself doesn’t really explain Reaganomics because of what actually happened. His experience through the late 1960′s and 1970′s describes the labor movement as having become political driven organizations characterized by the same characteristics (greed, power, control, and inequality) of those they despised – Big Business. They provided (and still do) flexibility to tailor their work force needs to the production needs. Some firms have done so to improve their chance of selling to foreign markets or to take advantage of foreign government incentives (taxes) (Harrison Bluestone 31).

Since the mid-1960′s through the 1990′s, Americans have been getting poorer and poorer. This living on debt and buying time was sufficient to fuel a short-term recovery (Harrison Bluestone 147). Ronald Reagan’s supporters credit him as being the great savior of the American economy; his critics’ credit his policies for creating the destruction of labor and gambling away the future of the American economy through massive increases in the federal deficit. Often it’s stated that the Reagan Administration was trying to reduce the double-digit inflation of 1980 and turn around the falling rate of production. This was more than $1,740 less than they would have received based on 1968 income levels (Harrison Bluestone 131). The wage-gap between the America lower income group and the upper or rich America group has been ever increasing. After 1980, the purchasing power of lower-class wage earners through middle-class wage earners degraded throughout the period. They increased offshore investments and began outsourcing for labor and manufacturing in search of the lowest labor and production costs.

But what is the cost of these outsourcing? The result of reductions in domestic production and outsourcing was a reduction in U.S. DOD spending doubled $134 billion in 1980 to $282 billion in 1987 (Harrison Bluestone 149). Strangely enough, this period seems to be the era of debt for both the government and the American income earners. Fulltime manning was drastically reduced in watchdog agencies tasked to monitor the various industries. This group shrank from 53-percent in 1973 to 47.9-percent in 1984. To continue the weakening of the labor pool, the Reaganites engineered the recessions of 1980 and 1981-2 to under-cut labor organizations while contributing to the corporate bottom line (Harrison Bluestone 14). New employees would only receive 75 to 80-percent of the normal wage during a probation period (the probation period usually equated to the business’s employee turnover period). This article will discuss one particular facet of the Reaganomics debate; the issue of inequality in income distribution in America as a result of a turn-around in government policies combined with corporate restructuring.

While Presidents Reagan and Bush froze the minimum wage level for a nine-year period, essentially cutting pay each year as inflation bit into lower wage earners, the salaries of executives skyrocketed during the 80′s. The groundwork for Reaganomics policies was put in place well before his time.

From 1969 – 1980 (prior to Reaganomics) wage cuts and freezes were “practically non-existent” (Harrison Bluestone 39). As Harrison and Bluestone state it, “Globalization of production was no longer supplementing domestic manufacturing but replacing it (Harrison Bluestone 28).” Restructuring involved creating multinational corporations with its headquarters and support functions in the major capitalist countries. The existence of the Pension Benefit Guarantee Corporation (PBGC) also quieted union members by insuring the benefits of workers displaced when companies went bankrupt or their pension plans go bust.

In Thomas Geoghegan’s book, Which Side Are You On? Trying To Be For Labor When It’s Flat on Its Back, two pieces of legislation are discussed as the beginning of the end for organized labor began with the 1935 Wagner Act and the National Labor relations Board (NLRB). This shows that there was a higher distribution of income in the hands of fewer people (Krugman 25).

Ronald Reagan’s laissez-faire government policies, reminiscent of the 1920′s, included legislative and legal actions that severely hampered organized labor. businesses began discarding their standard practices and shifted capital into overtly speculative ventures. However, after accounting for the business cycle, for productivity, and for the shrinkage of manufacturing jobs, the growing proportion of baby boomers in the work force contributes nothing to an explanation of low wages. The GINI Index numbers support this disparity. Contingency labor included part-time and temporary employees. A further major benefit of these creative pay systems was that they provided a way to avoid unions or at least keep the impact of union actions at a minimum. At the end of the Carter Era the GINI Index before taxes was (.403) and (.352) after taxes. lost one out of three heavy industrial jobs.

Geoghegan, a former labor attorney, tells of his experiences dealing with organized labor, how and why it has lost its ability to fight. The results of these policies directly impacted the redistribution of income in favor of the higher income group (Harrison Bluestone 162).

Reaganomics Debate:Inequality in Income Distribution, Government Policies and Corporate Restructuring

Mountains of paper have been written about the economic period of the 1980′s, coined Reaganomics.  Reaganomic policies, though we can’t forget some initial deregulation efforts instituted during the Carter years, reversed what had been accomplished prior to the 1970′s (Harrison Bluestone 79). In some cases businesses just simply got out of the production end and found alternate “ways of making paper profits” or found other ways to reduce labor costs.

The Government economic policies supporting deregulation and the concept of privatization of government services were actually taken initially between the years 1968-1978. During this period the government went on a spending spree financed by the deficit. U.S. Therefore, it’s not too surprising to see the average American family would not be to upset if union organizations were losing ground. Reaganomics, in effect, was a program to strengthen business and industry while weakening the power of organized labor, reduce federal spending on other than military programs, reduce taxes, and regulatory abatement. Reagan policies were designed to provide some flexibility for businesses to contain production costs, increase profits by reducing labor costs, and reducing the costs involved in meeting government standards. Yet, no real credible argument has been made that the Reagan years did anything to improve the equality of income distribution. One argument presented to explain this problem is that the “low wage explosion is mostly a statistical illusion, reflecting the impact of inflation and recession on workers’ earnings (Geoghegan 124).” Another proposal is to attribute the problem to a large influx of baby boomers into the work force. Double income families were not a uniqueness of the lowest income earners, middle-class America also lost, or at least sustained, buying power during the 1980′s. The richest 20-percent received $5,600 more per year in 1986, than they would have based on 1968 monetary values (Harrison Bluestone 131). Union bureaucracy began to rival that of the federal and state court systems (Geoghegan 86-7).

Of course there are many supporters of Reaganomics that will produce statistics showing how the GNP was sustained during the 1980′s; there is really no mystery here. Either there exists a significant polarization of income distribution around the middle-class or the middle-class is now what used to be the lower-end of the upper-class income.

If labor had not been weakened enough by the high unemployment levels in the late 1970′s, Reagan’s firming of the PATCO members sent a clear message to not only the unions, but also to the courts as to his lack of support for organized labor. As Geoghegan puts it, the Taft-Hartley led to union busting.

Contingency labor pools were (and still are) not organized under a union. Yet, organized labor was not the only one to feel the reduction of government support. Revolving installment credit grew from $55 billion in 1980 to more than $128 billion in 1986 (Harrison Bluestone 149). As a result of these actions, profit margins rose steadily, yet average wages for families has decreased or at best has somewhat frozen in place.

Any discussion on Reaganomics should always contain a definition of Reaganomics so let’s get that out of the way from the start. According to data published in Krugman’s book, Peddling Prosperity: Economic Sense and Nonsense in the Age of Diminished Expectations, income data for the period reflects that the tax reductions during the 1980s actually cost the lower 60-percent income groups, while the top 40-percent income groups saw monetary increases (Krugman 24-5). More family members entered the work force in order to increase or sustain real income purchasing power. However, the benefactors of the tax reduction were not the majority of wage earners

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